This guideline provides information on how the book content should be zipped and the specifications to follow while managing the folders inside the Zip package, and it covers the following areas.

1. Packing data for submission
2. Accepted file types
3. Naming Conventions

Packaging data for submission

Folder organization and naming

Follow the below conditions to package the contents into ZIP files.

  • Book content should be zipped into one or more ZIP files.
  • A ZIP package must contain either a single book file, or multiple chapter files, but cannot mix both (“chapter” here refers to any chapter-like content, including a Part, Chapter, Section, Foreword, etc.).
  • ​The chapter files should be from the same book and they should be unique within the package.

Note: Book files must be packaged according to guidelines specified in this document before they can be transferred using Nova.

Imports book

Generally, Nova identifies books by ISBN. There are two methods that the Nova can import the book content,

  • Nova will create a new book and import the book metadata from the XML files, if you import book content with an ISBN that does not exist in the database.
  • Nova will import the content to that book, if you import book content with an ISBN that matches a book in the database.

Note: Nova will not update book level metadata from subsequent imports to a book.

Editing Metadata

To edit the metadata, go to the book details page for the book. If a chapter’s ID does not match any chapters already in the book, the chapter will be added to the end of the book. If the chapter’s ID matches a chapter already in the book, it will replace the existing chapter.


Book files must be packaged according to the Nova before they can be transferred using Nova. Follow these specifications to ensure you get the most out of the Nova platform.

  • The ZIP package should include a folder named “xml” that contains the XML files. The ZIP package may also contain a folder named “assets” that contains all other associated files such as figure images, pdf files, supplemental data files, and book-level ancillary files.
  • File types are constrained to those recorded in the Packaging Guidelines.
  • File names for book content found in the “assets” folders must be one of a kind all through the book, regardless of whether they are imported through various different packages.
  • Ancillary book-level materials (e.g. book cover image) are not called out in the XML, so they must follow the naming convention mentioned in this document.

1. Folder names must be all one word, with no spaces. If there are no files for the assets, then the folder does not have to be included in the zip file.
2. File types are limited to those listed in the below type.

​​Folder Name​​Contents​​Allowed File TypesNotes
​​XML​​XML of the book​​XML​​This folder is must. The XML can be either a single XML file or multiple XML files, one per chapter. All files in the XML must belong to the same book.
​​assets​​PDF versions of the book and/or book chapters​​PDF
​​assets​​All graphic files​​Nova accepted Web Image File Type​​Includes images tagged as < inline-graphic>​, < graphic>​, or < fig>​ and tables.
​​assets​​Image or PDF versions of the cover, front matter or back matter connected with the book​​Any accepted file type​​Image file for the book cover, PDF of the book TOC or other front and back matter. Front and back matter should also be coded into the book XML.
​​assets​​Supplementary data for either the book or the chapters​​Any accepted file type​​Includes media, PDFs, etc, but not figures or tables referenced in the XML.

Table 1: Folder structure

Book-level component files

In some case, books may have other material such as a book cover, front matter, etc. that publishers want available on the site in non-html formats. As mentioned above, these additional material should be in the “assets” folder. Generally, PDF format is preferred.

Subordinate materials are not called out in the XML, so they should follow the naming convention mentioned in the below table for the system to detect and import them. And also, files that are called out in the XML (e.g. figure images) must avoid use of the naming conventions mentioned below. 

​​Note: The text of the front and back matter additionally needs to be included in the book XML to show up on the site as html. These naming conventions allude just to interchange versions of the subordinate material.

​​File​​File name must start with​​Examples
​​Covercover​​cover.pdf; cover_bookname.pdf
​​Front Matter​​front​​frontMyBookName.pdf, front_matter_for_this_book.pdf
​​Back Matter​​back​​backMyBookName.pdf, back_matter_for_this_book.pdf
​​Editorial Board​​ed_board​​ed_board.pdf
​​Table of Contents​​toc​​toc.pdf

Table 2: Naming Conventions for Ancillary material

If you have additional book-related files, please contact your Project Manager.

Accepted file type

The below table describes the list of file types we prepared to accept, along with the file name extensions. This list applies to book-level files and files included with chapters, such as figure images.

​​Media type​​Extensions
​​Video​​mpg, mpeg, mov, avi, wmv
​​Audiomp3, wav, mp4, au, wma
​​HTML​​htm, html
​​Excel​​xls, xlsx
​​PowerPoint​​ppt, ppx
​​Document​​xml, txt, doc, docx
​​Images​​PNG (preferred), JPG (.jpg/.jpeg[1]), GIF[2], TIFF (.tiff/.tif), BMP

Table 3: Accepted file type

Image files

Ensure that the image files satisfies the below requirement,

  • Nova requires the original digital image files, at the highest resolution you want to display, for all figures in the book.
  • The file names should match with the XML name.  In the event that pictures are utilized for tables, similar principles apply.
  • ​​The preferred graphic file format is png–24.

​1. EPS files are NOT supported and must be converted to PNG.
​2. Nova converts and contracts any web art above 2MB or over 1800 px in width or height to give a good experience on web.

PDF versions

If you choose to have PDFs of the book or book chapters available on the site, provide print quality PDFs if possible.

Supplementary data

Supplementary data, as characterized by the NLM DTD documentation, are extra “information files that contain data straightforwardly supportive of the document, for instance, an audio clip, movie, database, spreadsheet, applet, or other external file.” Any format listed in Table (3) is permitted. When given, these should be described in the XML document and tagged with the <supplementary-material> tag.

Naming conventions

Files names must contain spaces, as they are case insensitive and ought to be unique within the book. Use consistent naming convention for files. Good file names will show the book and chapter they have a place with, to enable cross-checking against their subdirectories. Alternate versions of the similar content should be given the same name with the proper file extension. 

Example: A chapter XML file named BookName_chap001.xml would have a PDF file named BookName_chap001.pdf.

References to files in the XML must reference the filename exactly, including the file extension,  all together for the system to find and link them to the content.Proposed file naming conventions are illustrated in Table (2). These are discretionary; the basic point is that files are named consistently across file types and content.

​​Type of File​​Naming Convention
​​Table Image​​book_chapternumber_t001.png
​​Supplementary data​​book_chapternumber_ds001.pdf

Table 4: Naming Convention for files

​1. The JPEG extension is needed for JPGs displaying on Amazon Kindle.
​2. GIF files may not have a transparent background.