Here is the general guideline of how publishers to prepare the Journal article XML files to be hosted on Nova.

NISO Journal Publishing Tag Set (JATS) specification for XML is the matured and defacto for the journal content publishing, and many publishers are already adopted to the JATS. Nova has chosen the JATS version 1.3d1 — the successor to the NLM Journal Publishing Tag Set Tag Library version 3.0. Please follow the below given link to find the details of JATS tagging requirements.

It is very important the XML must be validate to the JATS before loading to the platform, unless otherwise any publisher has made some custom developments for their specific business requirements.

Declaration of DTD or Schema

The first two lines of XML files must have the XML version, Encoding, and the DTD or Schema definition.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD JATS (Z39.96) Journal Publishing DTD v1.3d1 20190831//EN" "JATS-journalpublishing1.dtd"> 

Custom Features

 XML Processing Instruction

A Processing Instruction (xhtml) is an XML node type, which may occur anywhere in the document, intended to carry instructions to the NOVA application.

<?xhtml style="font-size:300%;color:blue;border:1px solid red";  data-alt="Nothing is impossible"?> 

NOVA follow the processing instructions to display content.

Character Encoding

All texts in the XML files must have UTF–8 encoding form, except the predefined characters listed below.

NameUnicodeGlyphUnicode Name DescriptionAliases

Article Element

Please refer to the JATS specification to make the required elements and attributes.

​​<article article-type="correction">
​​   <front>
​​     <journal-meta>…</journal-meta>
​​       <article-meta>
​​            …
​​           <related-article xmlns:xlink="" related-article-type="corrected-article" elocation-id="10.1117/1.JBO.17.1.9765173" />
​​       </article-meta>
​​    </front>
​​    …

Journal Metadata

Nova will display a warning if the ISSN provided does not match the ISSN configured in Nova for a publication. To enable ISSN matching, use the @pub-type=”ppub” or @pub-type=”epub” attribute on the <⁢issn> element.

Please refer to the JATS specification to make the required elements and attributes.

​​Recommended element​​Recommended AttributesDescription
​​<issn>​​​@pub-type="ppub"​ for print ISSN
​​@pub-type="epub"​ for EISSN
​​Journal ISSN. ​​Use the pub-type​ attribute to specify what type of ISSN is provided.
​​<journal-id>​​​@journal-id-type​​​Use the @journal-id-type attribute to name the type of identifier.
​​<journal-title>​​Full title of the journal
​​<abbrev-journal-title>​​​Abbreviation version used for PubMed and other third party deliveries
​​    <journal-id journal-id-type="coden">JBOPFO</journal-id>
​​    <journal-id journal-id-type="publisher-id">JBO</journal-id>
​​      <journal-title-group>
​​        <journal-title>Journal of Cancer Research</journal-title>
​​        <abbrev-journal-title>J. Cancer. Research.</abbrev-journal-title>
​​      </journal-title-group>
​​        <issn pub-type="ppub">1083-3668</issn>
​​        <issn pub-type="epub">1560-2281</issn>
​​    <publisher>
​​        <publisher-name>Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers</publisher-name>
​​    </publisher>

Article metadata

Ensure to give at least the following article metadata at whatever point appropriate. Metadata is needed for both articles with full text and articles that are provided in PDF only. The values provided here will be shown in the article and utilized for indexing and retrieval of articles.

Required Article Metadata

​​Required element​​Required Attributes​​Notes
​​<article-title>​​​Contained in a <title-group>​ element. Articles without titles will be assigned a default title to make them navigable on the website.
​​<pub-date>​​​One of the following for each element:
​​@pub-type="ppub"​ ​​
@pub-type="epub"​ ​​
​​See section Article and issue publication dates
​​<volume>​​Note that values are not normalized in processing; vol 01 and vol 1 are treated as two separate volumes. Volume numbers are not required for Publish Ahead of Print articles.
<issue>​​​Note that (as with volume) issue 01 and issue 1 are treated as two separate issues. Issue numbers are not required for Publish Ahead of Print articles or proceedings.
​​<fpage>​​​First page number. Non-numeric values such as “1a” are acceptable if this reflects the article’s pagination. If page numbers are not used, a value that is the equivalent of page number (e.g. CID) should be put in <fpage>​.
​​<lpage>​​​Last page number. Required if different in value from <lpage>​.
​​<self-uri>​​​@xlink:href="article_pdf.pdf"​Required if a PDF of the article is present.
<related-article>​​Required for errata and any other related proceeding link. See section Related article links

Versioning Articles

Publishers can load the articles multiple times based on the publishing workflow requirements. Some of the common scenarios:

– As soon as the articles are approved (by journal editors) for publishing
– As soon as the contents are copy-edited
– After the formatting the contents.

Packaging guideline may vary for each version of the content. Please refer to our packaging guideline [link to the other page] for journals. Nova will treat the DOI value as unique identifier across the content. As in when package is loaded under Nova designated repository, Nova will make the necessary conversion process to bring the content either as to a new or replacement of existing DOI.


It is very important to capture the copyright details in the contents according to the JATS tagging requirements. The <permissions> element holds copyright information and license material.

Copyright may include:

  • <copyright-statement>: The information that will display on the site should be the complete statement of copyright for the article. It is likely that this will duplicate information in the <copyright-year> and <copyright-holder> elements.
  • <copyright-year>: The year of copyright.
  • <copyright-holder>: The name of the copyright holder.

The <license> element contains the set of conditions under which people are allowed to use an article, or other license-related information or restrictions.

  • @license-type attribute: The access type to be stored in the database. The following licenses will make the content available on the site without authentication. Other license types will default to private.
  • @xlink:href attribute: A URL to a resource describing the license. To submit the license URL to CrossRef, include a value in this attribute.
​​License type​​Description
​​@license-type="free"​​​Free article
​​@license-type="open-access"​​​Open Access article

<license license-type=“open-access” xlink:href=““> This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which allows unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Most of the license would fall a single paragraph. If a license description requires more than a paragraphs, please use this element for each paragraphs.

Production history details

History is used as a holder for dates such as received date and accepted date recognized with the processing history of the document. Values for date-type are customer-specific and must be set up in Nova before loading. Use a combination of day, month, year, and iso–8601-date as depicted in Articles and issue publication dates to give a legitimate date.

​​    …
​​    <history>
​​        <date date-type="received">
​​            <day>05</day>
​​            <month>01</month>
​​            <year>1998</year>
​​        </date>
​​        <date date-type="rev-recd">
​​            <day>24</day>
​​            <month>05</month>
​​            <year>1998</year>
​​        </date>
​​        <date date-type="accepted">
​​            <day>06</day>
​​            <month>06</month>
​​            <year>1998</year>
​​        </date>
​​    </history>
​​    …

Authors and affiliations

Authors and other contributors that should appear in the article by-line should be placed in a <contrib-group content-type=”article”> node. Leaving the @content-type attribute off will also default to @content-type=“article”.

Place each contributor in a <contrib contrib-type=”author”> or <contrib contrib-type=”editor”> node. A <contrib> element with no @contrib-type attribute will default to @contrib-type=”author”. <contrib> elements with a @contrib-type attribute value other than author or editor will be ignored. Use the sub-element to include the role of the contributor to be displayed.

If there are article author affiliations (<aff>), the <aff> nodes can be included as sibling elements to the <contrib-group> node (child of the <article-meta> element). These nodes must include an @id attribute. In the <contrib> node for which the affiliation applies, include an <xref> node that references the appropriate <aff> node. The <aff> node must include a <label> to provide a linked symbol from the author to the affiliation. Do not include a label as content of the <xref>.

​​        <contrib contrib-type="author">
​​            <name>
​​                <surname>Maria</surname>
​​                <given-names>Steffy</given-names>
​​            </name>
​​            <degrees>PhD</degrees>
​​            <xref ref-type="aff" rid="aff1" />
​​        </contrib>
​​        …
​​<aff id="aff1">
​​    <label>1</label> Information Systems, Charlottesville, VA 22902. 

Affiliations that are not linked from a <contrib> element will be overlooked. The <aff> nodean likewise be incorporated as as a child of the <contrib> element to which the affiliation applies. Utilizing this strategy, affiliations must be repeated for every contributor if multiple contributors have the same affiliation, and the @id attribute is not required.

Each affiliated organization should be included in a separate <aff> node. Use <collab> instead of <name> if the author is a grouped under a single name or the author is an organization (collaborative groups or collectives). Members of each group can be provided inside a <contrib-group> node that is a child of the <collab> element. These contributing members are not treated as authors and will not appear in the by-line, but will be submitted to PubMed as investigators/collaborators.

Notes that are not affiliations but are specific to a contributor can be included in an <author-comment> node within the <contrib> node to which the note applies. The @content-type attribute must be included to indicate the type of note. Permitted attribute values are:

  • <author-comment content-type=”disclosure”>
  • <author-comment content-type=”deceased”>
  • <author-comment content-type=”other”>

Important: Please note that the wish to not publicise the email address along with the articles, please add the (@hidden=true attribute) Please note that is this attribute defines whether the email should be display publically or not. But, all articles are required to capture the corresponding research email to make the necessary notification for the published contents and manage certain special permissions on the platform.

Accompanying the PDF formats

Link an article PDF to the article using <self-uri>, for example <self-uri xlink:title=”pdf” xlink:href=”2011.11010094.pdf”/> where the xlink:href value is the exact file name as it occurs in the pdf subdirectory. Do not prepend the file name with a directory path.

The <self-uri> element is intended to link to the same portion of content in different forms. For links to data supplements use the <supplementary-material> element . For links within the same document, use the <xref> element. For links to external resources, use the <ext-link> element.

Accompanying the Supplementary files

Data supplements such as PDFs, images, etc. and information in external files have to be linked in the article using the <supplementary-material> element. Give the relevant data supplement file name, with the extension, in the @xlink:href attribute value, as in <supplementary-material xlink:href=”supplement.pdf”>. Do not include a file path.

For data supplements, use the attribute @content-type=”data-supplement”. For disclosures, use the attribute @content-type=”disclosure”. If no @content-type attribute is provided, then the material will be treated as a data supplement. A title for supplementary data have to be placed in <label> and any explanatory text in the <caption>, inside the element. The supplementary material must be placed inside the <article-meta> section within the <front> of the article.

​​<supplementary-material id="sup1" content-type="data-supplement" xlink:href="data_supplement.pdf">
​​    <label>Data Supplement Title.</label>
​​    <caption>
​​      <p>Detailed diagram of the topic under discussion.</p>
​​    </caption>
If a data supplement is mentioned within the text, the <supplementary-material> element must have an @id attribute. Use an <xref> in the text to mention the link to the supplement.
<xref ref-type="supplementary-material" rid="sup1">Table 3</xref> 

Supplementary material can be assigned a unique identifier such as a DOI using the <object-id> tag within the element. The @pub-id-type attribute must be included with a value of either doi or publisher-id.

Page range and count

The page range and page count of an article can be included in the metadata. The page range should be included in <page-range>​. Use <page-range>​ if pages are discontinuous. Include <fpage>​ and <lpage>​ even if <page-range>​ is provided; this information aids in determining accurate citation data. ​​The page count of the article can be included as the value of the @count​ attribute of the <page-count>​ element within a <counts>​ element. Page count is the only count that we accept.

    <page-count count=”6″/>

Author notes

Author notes show up as an extended section or pop-up from a link under the article title and authors. Utilize this section for additional notes about article contributors. The authors notes can be incorporated by utilizing the <author-notes> element within the <article-meta> section.


Abstracts are included in the <abstract> node within the <article-meta> element. The authored abstract should have no @abstract-type attribute, or it should have the attribute @abstract-type=”abstract”. The attributes @abstract-type=”teaser” and @abstract-type=”precis” will also be imported. Within an abstract, you may include titled sections using <sec> nodes and the <title> element in each <sec>. Abstracts tagged with titled sections will be sent to PubMed as structured abstracts.

Figure and captions

Figures (<fig>​) should be placed after the paragraph in which they are cited, not mid-paragraph. If more than one figure or table is cited in any particular paragraph, they should be placed in the order they are cited. If they are cited in a list item, they should be placed after the (outermost) closing list tag.

<p>… in <xref ref-type="fig" rid="f1">Fig.&#xA0;1</xref>. The …</p>
<fig id="f1">
    <label>Fig. 1</label>
    <caption><p>A schematic of … </p></caption>
    <graphic xlink:href="JBO_17_2_026001_f001.png"/>

The @id attribute must be used on the <fig> or the <fig-group> if they will be referenced from the body of the text using an <xref>. The exception to this requirement is bibliographic references, which will be automatically numbered if no numbering is provided.


The <graphic> element can also be used without a <fig>. A <graphic> can be placed either outside or inside a paragraph, and will appear on its own line in either case.

This tagging should be used for images that are not numbered and may or may not have a label, such as author headshots. These images will appear within the text of the document, without a pop up. These images will not appear in features such as the table of figures.

Inline Graphics

Inline graphics appear within a line of text, and are tagged using the <inline-graphic>​ element. An <inline-graphic>​ must have an attribute @xlink:href​, whose value should be the exact file name of the image.

<p>The temperatures rose 20 degrees <inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href="sparkline.png" /> in 20 minutes. …</p> 


As like figures, tables should also be placed after the paragraph in which they are cited, and not mid-paragraph. Tables are tagged with the <table-wrap> element and may contain a <label> and <caption>, and must contain a <table> or <graphic> element. Include XML content for the table in <table>To provide the table content in the form of an image, use the <graphic> element to point to the image file instead of using the <table> element. 

A <graphic> must have an attribute @xlink:href, whose value should be the exact file name of the image. Provide only the literal file name relative to the directory specified for the file in the appropriate packaging guidelines. For example, a table image stored directly in the TableImages directory should use xlink:href=”image.png” without a file path preceding the file name. The @id attribute must be used on the <table-wrap> if the table will be referenced by an <xref> from elsewhere in the article.

Tabular formatting

Use the table-wrap element with the @specific-use=”inline” attribute, to apply tabular formatting to content without the complete table treatment (e.g. listing in table of tables, expandable thumbnails, downloads)

Table Models

By default, this Tag Set uses the NISO JATS (XHTML-inspired) table model, as defined in NISO JATS version of the XHTML Table Module. However, this Tag Set can be set up to use the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model either instead of or in addition to the XHTML-inspired model.

The modules that enable the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model are distributed as part of this Tag Set, and a separate OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) Table Tag Library ( describes the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model elements, attributes, and parameter entities.

To enable two different tagging schemes for the same material (row and column tables), all OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model elements have been given a namespace and use the namespace prefix “oasis”. Since DTDs do not really work with namespaces, the namespace prefix has been hard-coded into the names of the OASIS table elements. This differentiates the two sets of table elements, allowing both NISO JATS XHTML-inspired and OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table models to be used together.

To illustrate how this works and for use by the user community, a separate OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) Table Archiving DTD is available as part of this Tag Set. It uses the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table elements instead of the NISO JATS XHTML-inspired table elements (filename JATS-archive-oasis-article1.dtd).

NISO JATS XHTML-inspired Table

The modules that implement the NISO JATS table coding are:

  • NISO JATS XHTML-inspired Table Setup Module (JATS-XHTMLtablesetup1.ent) Sets all parameter entities needed by the NISO JATS version of the XHTML Table Module, and then references (invokes) the NISO JATS XHTML-inspired Table Module.
  • To include the NISO JATS XHTML-inspired Table model in a tag set, a DTD must reference this module.
  • NISO JATS XHTML-inspired Table Module (xhtml-table-1.mod) The public XML DTD version of the XHTML Tables Module. This contains the NISO JATS version of the W3C-developed XHTML table model. This module is invoked from the module %XHTMLtablesetup.ent;.
  • NISO JATS XHTML-inspired Table Style Module (xhtml-inlstyle-1.mod) Declares the @style attribute, which supports inline style markup for elements such as < td> and < tr> and within NISO JATS table model.


The XHTML-inspired table model is the NISO JATS default, but versions of the models (DTD, XSD, and RNG) have been provided for archives and publishers that use OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model. As set up, these are separate models that define both the XHTML-inspired and the OASIS Exchange (CALS) table models, with the OASIS table model namespaced (prefix “oasis”) to prevent name clashes. An XML expert can readily turn off the XHTML-based table model, and (once there is only the single OASIS Exchange (CALS) table model, remove the OASIS namespace using NISO JATS-provided overrides (the OASIS Table Module need not be touched). The following files are necessary to use the OASIS Exchange (CALS) table model:

  • Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD with OASIS Tables (JATS-archive-oasis-article1.dtd) Complete Archiving (Green) DTD for the creation of new journal articles. This extension of the Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD replaces the Archiving DTD module and invokes both the XHTML table and the CALS OASIS XML Exchange Table models.
  • Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD with OASIS Tables DTD-Specific Modules (JATS-archive-oasis-custom-modules1.ent) The DTD-specific modules for the new Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD that includes OASIS Tables.
  • Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD with OASIS Tables Customize Classes Module (JATS-archivecustom-classes1.ent) The class overrides for this new DTD. These repeat all the class overrides of the regular Archiving DTD, with the table and alternative classes modified to use the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table elements. There is no equivalent mix override module, because this DTD uses the ordinary Archiving mix overrides.
  • JATS OASIS Table Namespace Module (JATS-oasis-namespace1.ent) This modules establishes the prefix for the OASIS Exchange (CALS) table model, by default “oasis” (“<oasis:table”)
  • JATS Namespaced OASIS XML Table Setup Module (JATS-oasis-tablesetup1.ent) Sets all parameter entities needed by the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model, and then references (invokes) the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) Table Model Module. for declarations of all the table elements.
  • OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) Table Model Module (oasis-exchange.ent) This is the OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) table model DTD fragment, modified to use the OASIS namespace and the “oasis” prefix. This module is invoked from the JATS OASIS XML Exchange (CALS) setup module.

Sidebars and boxed-text

Sidebars can be numbered or unnumbered, and placed in the content based on publisher preference, but avoid placing in mid-paragraph. The placement of sidebars and bored text in XML reflects in the online placement, i.e, in the web site. Nova supports sidebars marked as elements with special flags on a @content-type attribute. There are three types of sidebars allowed, in three sizes, as indicated by the value of the @content-type attribute:

  • <boxed-text content-type=”sidebar-small”>
  • <boxed-text content-type=”sidebar-medium”>
  • <boxed-text content-type=”sidebar-large”>

The <boxed-text> element without a @content-type attribute should be used for boxed-text that is not a sidebar. We can customize the actual display based on each client, please contact us if you need any adjustments.

Like figures and tables, sidebars and boxed-text may be numbered by using <label>, and can include a <caption>. The @id attribute must be used on the <boxed-text> if the table will be referenced by an <xref> from elsewhere in the article.



Sometimes, videos may be included as part of article content. Refer to the below link for video tagging details.

<video width="320" height="240" controls>
  <source src="movie.mp4" type="video/mp4">
  <source src="movie.ogg" type="video/ogg">
  Your browser does not support the video tag.

Media hosted by Nova

To include audio content, first include the video files in the DataSupplements folder of the package and mention the media in the Journals XML as follows:

​​<media id="audio1" content-type="audio" xlink:href="sounds-good.wmv">
​​    <label>1</label>
​​    <caption>
        <p>Recording of a person's life experience.</p>

The must have an attribute @xlink:href, whose value should be the exact file name of the multimedia. Provide only the exact file name relative to the directory specified for the file in the proper packaging guidelines. For example, an audio file stored directly in the DataSupplements directory should use xlink:href=”audio.mp3″ without a file path preceding the file name.

Math and equations

Equations have to placed in a <disp-formula> element or an <inline-formula> element. Both formula elements may contain text, MathML, or images. The <inline-formula> may not contain a <graphic>, but may contain an <inline-graphic>.

Equations appearing on their own line should be contained in a <disp-formula> element. The <disp-formula> element may be placed inside or outside a <p>. To label the formula—for example, with a number that appears to the right of the formula—include the label text in a <label> within the <disp-formula>. The <disp-formula> may be referenced by an <xref>; if the formula will be referenced, an @id attribute must be included.

Equations appearing within a line of text should be placed in an <inline-formula> element. The element should appear within a paragraph (<p>) or other element containing text. Inline formulas cannot be referenced by an <xref>.

Mathematical equations can be depicted using MathML contained in the <mml:math> element. If both an image and MathML are provided in a particular equation, we will display the image. The image file name is declared in the @altimg attribute value on the <mml:math> element and it must match the file supplied. If no image is provided, we will display the formatted MathML. MathML elements must use “mml” as the namespace prefix to validate to the JATS DTD.


Provide lists inside the <list> element. The <list> element should not be placed within a <p> element. The @list-type attribute can be used to assign the type of list as follows. If no @list-type is provided, the list will default to a simple list. Do not include the list item character (i.e. numbering or bullets) in the content; this will be generated automatically.

​​List-type attribute​​Default list item characterNotes
​​simple​​n/a​​Gets list indentation, but no character in front of each item. Sometimes called “unordered”.
​​number​​1, 2, 3
​​alpha-lower​​a, b, c
​​alpha-upper​​A, B, C
​​roman-lower​​i, ii, iii, iv
​​roman-upper​​I, II, III, IV


Use <verse-group> element to include poems. The <verse-group> element should not be placed within a <p> element.


Cross-references to items within the equivalent XML document are shown with the <xref> element. The @rid attribute is required (assigning the target of the cross-reference by its ID). And <xref> element used to assign an affiliation for a contributor should likewise have a @ref-type=”aff” attribute. Aside from references to author affiliations and to bibliographic references, the content of the element—regularly the figure number—will not be automatically generated; give exact content for display as shown by the “4(g)” in this example:

See figure <xref ref-type="fig" rid="f4">4(g) </xref>. 
If the bibliographic references in the <ref-list> section have an @id attribute, then Nova can generate the display text for the link automatically, and this method is preferred.
Jones <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="bib2" /> shows that… 
The @ref-type attribute indicates the element type of the cross-reference target and the @rid provides its id value. @rid may have only a single value; multiple links from an <xref> are not supported. If a document has a string of cross references either the <xref> should link to the first reference in the string or there must be an <xref> for each of the references. So, if a document contains:
​​… widely discussed [1, 2, 3] in the … 

you may either tag:

​​… widely discussed[<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="r1" />, <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="r2" />, <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="r3" />] in the …
​​… widely discussed[<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="r1">1, 2, 3</xref>] in the …
​​… widely discussed[<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="r1">1</xref>, <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="r2">2</xref>, <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="r3">3</xref>] in the …

External links

Use the <ext-link> element for links external to the content, except when mentioning to an alternate form of the same article or data supplements. The @xlink:href attribute should be used to indicate the location of the external content.

Back matter

The <ack>, <app-group>, <bio>, <fn-group>, <ref-list>, <notes>, and <sec> elements can be used in the back matter.


References or bibliographic citations should be tagged inside <ref-list> in the back matter. Each bibliographic entry should be in a < ref> element. References should be tagged in highly detailed way to support display and indexing. The JATS tag set recommends to tag the below elements:

  • <source>
  • <article-title>
  • <volume>
  • < issue>
  • <fpage>
  • <surname>
  • <year>
  • <month>
  • <day>
  • <doi>

We can match citation dynamically and provide functionalities such as display, linking, and analysis functionalities exactly, if tagging of the above information are done correctly. If the tagging is not detailed, it may leads to failure of the link references to CrossRef, PubMed, and other external resources. Nova can create links to PubMed and CrossRef for journal articles referenced in the references section. For Nova to determine and create these links, the @publication-type=”journal” attribute must be included in the <element-citation> or <mixed-citation> element.

CrossRef and PubMed information may optionally be supplied with the references by including a <pub-id> element. Use the attribute @pub-id-type=”doi” for a DOI and @pub-id-type=”pmid” for PubMed ID.

We support both <element-citation> and <mixed-citation> for references. The system provides formatting and punctuation for <element-citation>, while <mixed-citation> is formatted and punctuated from the source data. (See and for explanations and examples of each.)

If you are using <element-citation>, we suggest you preview the rendition of your data in our system to ensure good results.

​​<element-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print">
​​        <name>
​​        <name>
​​        <name>
​​        <name>
​​        <article-title>Life after Cancer</article-title>   
​​        <source>J Dem Diseases</source>
​​        <year>2006</year>
​​        <month>Feb</month>
​​        <volume>32</volume>
​​        <issue>1</issue>
​​        <fpage>112</fpage>
​​        <lpage>116</lpage>   
If you are using <mixed-citation> the XML must include all punctuation and spacing (such as the space between the <surname> and <given-names> below) as it should be displayed.
​​<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
​​<mixed-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print">
​​   <string-name>
​​      <surname>John</surname>
​​      <given-names>RC</given-names>
​​   </string-name>
​​   ,
​​   <string-name>
​​      <surname>Adam</surname>
​​      <given-names>JM</given-names>
​​   </string-name>
​​   ,
​​   <string-name>
​​      <surname>Jeff</surname>
​​      <given-names>LE</given-names>
​​   </string-name>
​​   ,
​​   <string-name>
​​      <surname>Fedrick</surname>
​​      <given-names>L</given-names>
​​   </string-name>
​​   .
​​   <article-title>Life after Cancer</article-title>
​​   .
​​   <source>J Dem Diseases</source>
​​   .
​​   <year>2006</year>
​​   <month>Feb</month>
​​   ;
​​   <volume>32</volume>
​​   (
​​   <issue>1</issue>
​​   ):
​​   <fpage>112</fpage>
​​   –
​​   <lpage>116</lpage>
​​   .

Note: some users prefer to use for citations types such as articles, where automatic formatting is likely to be satisfactory and use for unusual citation types (e.g., court cases, unpublished letters) where the citation format is more unique. The <xref> element must have an @id attribute if it is linked from elsewhere in the content using an <xref>.


Footnote must have to includes in <fn-group> element, with each footnote in an <fn>. In case, if the footnote is linked with any other section in the content using an <xref>, then the <fn> element must have an @id attribute, hence footnotes will display in the section where they appear instead of as a separate footnotes section.

Related article links

<related-article> is used for linking content to an article. For example, you can link an erratum to the original article or a response to a Letter to the Editor. Related articles must be limited to articles within the publisher’s content. Place the <related-article> node in the article metadata; <related-article> elements in the body of the article will not generate links between articles. The XML containing the <related-article> and the target content can be imported in any order in relation to each other.

There are two methods for indicating which article to link to:

1. DOI of the related article
2. Volume and first page number of the related article

DOI is strongly preferred. Volume and page number can be used for articles that do not have an assigned DOI, however links may not always be created if the system cannot find a match or finds more than one match and cannot determine which is correct. This can happen if there are numerous articles on a single page, e.g. various letters to the editor.

To link via DOI, two methods are available:

  • Use @elocation-id. The following attributes are required:
    • @related-article-type
    • @elocation-id=”[DOI of the related article]”
  • Use @xlink:href. The following attributes are required:
    • @related-article-type
    • @ext-link-type=”doi”
    • @xlink:href=”[DOI of the related article]”

To link via volume and page number, the following attributes are required:

  • @journal-id-type=”issn”
  • @journal-id—set to the ISSN of the journal
  • @vol
  • @page—set to first page of the related article
  • @related-article-type

Related articles that use the @xlink:href attribute to identify the target will be ignored by the Nova system, unless the target value is a DOI and the element includes the @ext-link-type=”doi” attribute. Currently supported values for @related-article-types are listed below. Contact your Project Manager if other types are needed.

​​Link type​​JATS definition
​​commentary​​Used in an article to name its associated commentary or editorial.
​​companion​​Used in an article to name a companion (related or sibling) article.
​​corrected-articleUsed in a correction or erratum to name the article being corrected.
​​letter​​Names a letter to the publication or a reply to such a letter.
retracted-article​​Used in a retraction to name the article being retracted.

Related content

You may link articles to other content or objects within an article.

Use the <related-object> element in the <article-meta> to assign a relation to another piece content.
Use the @document-type, @document-id-type, and @document-id attributes to designate the type of content and document to target.
Use the @object-type, @object-id-type, and @object-id attributes with the appropriate values, to link to an object (e.g. figure, table) within a portion of content. You must designate both the document and the object when linking to an object.

Links to the following content types can be created from articles. For links to non-standard content, the target content must be imported first, or be in the same package when creating a link. For links to books or books content, the article XML and the target XML can be imported in any order.

​​Target document/content type​​Tagging format
​​Non-standard​​<related-object document-type="non-standard" document-id-type="publisher-id" document-id="gbos123-12345"/>
​​Book (using ISBN 13)​​<related-object document-type="book" document-id-type="isbn13" document-id="5-321-44667-1"/>​
Book (using ISBN 10)​​<related-object document-type="book" document-id-type="isbn10" document-id="3478932145"/>​
​​Book (using eISBN)​​<related-object document-type="book" document-id-type="eisbn" document-id="4-009-23145-2"/>​

To target objects within document, additionally include the following attributes:

​​Target object​​Tagging format
​​Main Division (in non-standard only)​​<… object-type="main-division" object-id-type="publisher-id" object-id="legacySectionID-value"/>​
​​Part (in book only)​​<… object-type="part" object-id-type="publisher-id" object-id="legacySectionID-value"/>​
​​Chapter (in book only)​​<… object-type="chapter" object-id-type="publisher-id" object-id="legacySectionID-value"/>​
​​Section​​<… object-type="sec" object-id-type="publisher-id" object-id="legacySectionID-value"/>​
​​Figure​​<… object-type="fig" object-id-type="publisher-id" object-id="legacySectionID-value"/>​
​​Table​​<… object-type="table" object-id-type="publisher-id" object-id="legacySectionID-value"/>​
​​Video​​<… object-type="video" object-id-type="publisher-id" object-id="legacySectionID-value"/>​

For example <related-object document-type=”non-standard” document-id-type=”publisher-id” document-id=”gbos123-12345″ object-type=”fig” object-id-type=”publisher-id” object-id=”legacySectionID-value”/>

Links to objects within non-standard content will not be maintained if the target content is replaced. Use the @link-type attribute to designate the link type. The link-type must match a value in our system. If the link-type is directional in nature (e.g. A is a correction for B vs. B is corrected by A), the link-type should follow the logic: “The content in this XML is a/the [linkType] of/for the target content.”

Hierarchical article categories

Articles can be assigned to categories (i.e. subjects or groupings of any sort) that span each site. Use the <subj-group subj-group-type=”category”>​ and <subject>​ elements to designate categories for the article. Each category should be placed in a <subject>​ element within the <subj-group>​ element.

Nova supports hierarchical article categories, which allows for parent-child relationships between categories. When assigning a child-level category to an article, the parent categories must also be supplied in case more than one subcategory shares the same name. Nova can currently import up to a 2-level hierarchy. The example below shows an article with a category structure of:

  • Sensor Networks
  • Rainwater Harvesting Systems
​​        <subj-group subj-group-type="category">
​​            <subject>Sensor Networks</subject>
​​        <subj-group subj-group-type="category">
​​            <subject>Rainwater Harvesting Systems</subject>
​​        </subj-group>
​​        </subj-group>

Since the JATS only allows nested <subj-group> elements after the <subject> elements, use multiple top-level <subj-group subj-group-type=”category”> nodes to designate multiple parent-child categories.

If multiple facets of organization are required and the same category name exists for multiple facets, add a hyphen and the the category type to the end of the @subj-group-type value. For example, if the categories such as Research (with category type of Journal Categories) and Research (with category type of Article Categories) are set up in Nova for the same site, then specify the latter in the XML by including:

​​<subj-group subj-group-type="category-Article Categories">
​​    <subject>Research</subject>

Table of contents headings

Use <subj-group subj-group-type=”toc-heading”> element, to assign articles to a table of contents (TOC). TOC headings will be created on the fly during import. The TOC and TOC headings will be created for each issue and cannot be used to sort or group articles across different issues.

The top level <subj-group> element (the one with the @subj-group-type=”toc-heading” attribute) should contain the top-level (issue or conference volume) TOC arranging strategies. Place each TOC heading relevant to the article in subsequent nested <subj-group> elements. The most minimal level <subj-group> element must represent the article itself. Include an ordinal for the article in this last level. If the article needs no ordinal, incorporate the final <subj-group> element with an empty child element (<subject/> or <compound-subject/>).

Nova permits utilization of various sort algorithms at each level of the TOC, and diverse sort algorithms for sub-headings and articles. Sort algorithms for the top-level and each TOC heading assign how its children will be arranged. For instance if “Heading 1” has a sub-heading sort set to in alphabetical and article sort set to page number, at that point its sub-headings will be arranged alphabetically and its child articles will be arranged by page number.

Other rules regarding the TOC are as follows:

  • Both a sub-heading sort algorithm and an article sort algorithm must be given at the top level (issue or conference volume).
  • An article may show up just a single time in the TOC. Incorporate just a solitary way of TOC headings to the article.
  • A heading that has not had a sort technique specified indicated will acquire that sort strategy from its parent head or the top-level entry.
  • A heading that exists in an issue, that is imported in an article subsequent to the heading being created, and that does exclude sort strategies will hold the current sort strategy for the heading.
  • A heading that exists in an issue, that is imported in an article subsequent to the heading being created, and that incorporates a sort strategy will update the sort method for the heading.

Include the heading name and sort methods using <compound-subject-part> elements in a <compound-subject> under each <subject-group>. Use the following attributes on the <compound-subject-part> elements to specify the heading information:

​​@content-type="subhead-sort"​​​Sort algorithm for subheadings under the current heading
​​@content-type="article-sort"​​​Sort algorithm for articles under the current heading
​​@content-type="text"​​​The text displayed for the heading
​​@content-type="ordinal"​​​The ordinal assigned to the heading itself (or article if applied at the lowest <subj-group>​ node). Required if the parent heading has a sort method of ordinal.
The following values are permitted inside <compound-subject-part content-type=”subhead-sort”> elements:
​​inherit​​inherit from parent heading
​​ordinal​​by manually assigned ordinal
The following values are permitted inside <compound-subject-part content-type=”article-sort”> elements:
​​inherit​​inherit from parent heading
​​alpha​​alphabetical on article title
​​ordinal​​by manually assigned ordinal
​​page​​by first page
​​date​​by pub date
​​doi​​by DOI

Reference highlighting

The start and end of arbitrary portions of text can be mentioned using the <milestone-start> and <milestone-end> elements. These tags can demonstrate the portions of text to highlight in an article that is linked from a CME or quiz to portray the correct answer.

Since these are empty elements, they can be utilized to show non-hierarchical portions of the text that cannot otherwise be indicated using standard opening and closing element tags without violating XML standards. Where a <milestone-start> element is used, a matching <milestone-end> element must be used.

The <milestone-start> element must have an @id attribute. The <milestone-end> element must have an @rid attribute whose value equals the @id of the matching <milestone-start> element.

Funding information for deposit to FundRef

Include information about funding of the research in the <funding-group> tag. Nova can import the funder’s name, funder’s identifier, and associated award identifiers, and deposit this information to FundRef. Inside the <funding-source> element, use the <named-content content-type=”funder-name”> and <named-content content-type=”funder-identifier”> tags to designate the funder name and identifiers, respectively.

​​<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
​​   <award-group award-type="grant">
​​      <funding-source>
​​         <named-content content-type="funder-name">National Science Foundation</named-content>
​​         <named-content content-type="funder-identifier">14.12674.10000441</named-content>
​​      </funding-source>
​​      <award-id>psychoceramics-1152342</award-id>
​​   </award-group>
​​   <award-group award-type="grant">
​​      <funding-source>
​​         <named-content content-type="funder-name">Example Org</named-content>
​​         <named-content content-type="funder-identifier">00.00000.441</named-content>
​​      </funding-source>
​​      <award-id>abc-001</award-id>
​​      <award-id>abc-002</award-id>
​​   </award-group>

If an embargo period is stored in Nova for a funder, articles associated with an award from that funder will automatically become available outside the paywall after that embargo period. Embargo periods for funding agencies are maintained in Nova and are not included in the XML. The initial access type for an article is set during import. A license URL for an article can also be sent to CrossRef. See section Permission for information about setting access type and including licensing information.

Image maps

To include an image map, list the coordinates and corresponding links in <ext-link> elements inside the <graphic> node. Put the coordinates in a <named-content content-type=”coordinates”> element. Linked areas will be rectangular. List the coordinates in order x1,y1,x2,y2, where:

  • x1 is the horizontal position, measured from the left, of the top-left corner of the linked area
  • y1 is the vertical position, measured from the top, of the top-left corner of the linked area
  • x2 is the horizontal position, measured from the left, of the bottom-right corner of the linked area
  • y2 is the vertical position, measured from the top, of the bottom-right corner of the linked area
Figure 12:
    <ext-link ext-link-type=“publisher-id” xlink:href=“200119”>746,299,804,318 
    <ext-link ext-link-type=“publisher-id” xlink:href=“656910”>436,521,481,540 
    <ext-link ext-link-type=“publisher-id” xlink:href=“621844”>804,549,857,568 
    <ext-link ext-link-type=“publisher-id” xlink:href=“201714”>623,681,671,700 
    <ext-link ext-link-type=“publisher-id” xlink:href=“200662”>559,681,623,700 
    <ext-link ext-link-type=“publisher-id” xlink:href=“200799”>559,661,593,680 
    <ext-link ext-link-type=“publisher-id” xlink:href=“200021”>559,644,593,663 
    <ext-link ext-link-type=“publisher-id” xlink:href=“200014”>559,625,593,644 
    <ext-link ext-link-type=“publisher-id” xlink:href=“663333”>458,482,492,501 
    <ext-link ext-link-type=“publisher-id” xlink:href=“777429”>422,482,457,501 Frank J. Domino, MD and Bree Alyeska Huning Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2006;18(7):499–506. 

Proceedings XML requirements

Proceedings usually follow the same requirements as for journal articles. Details are given in this section for information specific to proceedings.

Conference proceedings journal metadata

The following metadata in the <journal> element are suggested for conference proceedings. Nova will display a warning if the ISSN provided does not match the ISSN configured in Nova for a publication. To enable ISSN matching, use the @pub-type=”ppub” or @pub-type=”epub” attribute on the <issn> element.

​​Element​​Recommended attribtues​​Notes
​​<issn>​​This is required by NLM to be valid against the DTD.
​​<isbn>​​​If the conference has an ISBN, include it. ​​Use no attribute or give the attributes @content-type="ISBN10"​ or @content-type="ISBN13"​ for print ISBN. ​​Use the attribute @content-type="eISBN"​ for electronic ISBN.

Conference article metadata

The article element requires an @article-type attribute.

Article Element for Proceedings

​​Element​​Required attributes​​Notes

The following is the required article metadata for conference proceedings.

​​Required element​​Required attributes​​Notes
​​<article-title>​​​Contain in <title-group>​ element. Proceedings without titles will be assigned a default title to make them navigable on the website.
​​<contrib-group>​​​@content-type="article"​ ​​@content-type="volume"​​​Use @content-type="article"​ for proceedings authors. Put volume editors within a <contrib-group>​ with @content-type="volume"​. Volume editors will be updated every time an article is loaded to that volume.
​​<contrib>​​​@contrib-type="author"​ (use for proceedings authors) ​​
@contrib-type="editor"​ (use for volume editors)
​​Contain in <contrib-group>​ element.
​​<collab>​​​Use for groups of authors credited under a single name.
​​<volume>​​​Note that vol 01 and vol 1 are treated as two separate volumes. This information must match that provided in the conference metadata.
​​<fpage>​​First page number. Non-numeric values such as “1a” are acceptable if this reflects the article’s pagination. If page numbers are not used, a value that is the equivalent of page number (e.g. CID) should be put in <fpage>​.
​​<lpage>​​Required if different in value from <lpage>​.
​​<self-uri>​​@xlink:href="article_pdf.pdf"​​​Required if a PDF of the proceeding is present.
​​<permissions>​​Copyright statements go here. Multiple copyright statements, years, and holders are permitted.

Required Article Metadata for Proceedings

​​Recommended element​​Required attributes​​Notes
​​<article-id>​​One of the following for each element: ​​@pub-id-type="doi"​ ​​
​​DOIs are required to enable some Nova functionality, including automated article replacement, duplication checking, and CrossRef deposits. Articles may have multiple <article-id>​.

Automatic replacements

Nova will use an article’s DOI or publisher ID to automatically distinguish duplicate articles and make replacements. DOI will trump publisher ID for coordinating articles. On the off chance that the journal or conference is live, at that point an imported article will replace an article already in the system that has a matching DOI or publisher ID. In the event that the journal or conference is not live, for instance, while importing backfile content—then articles will be imported as new regardless of whether they have a copy DOI or distributer ID.

Conference hierarchy metadata

The conference metadata includes the full conference hierarchy for the proceeding, plus information about the volume and the session within the volume. The metadata must match for each proceeding in the volume; otherwise the system will create a new volume with the conference hierarchy specified in the metadata.

Conference hierarchy metadata

​​Required element​​Required attributes​​Notes
​​<conference> ​​@content-type="conf-level-1"​ ​​or ​​@content-type="conf-level-2"​​​Up to two conference levels are supported. conf-level-1​ indicates the conference series information. conf-level-2​ indicates the conference itself. The <conference>​ element is the parent of the following elements.
​​<conf-date>​ ​​To indicate only the start date of the conference, the format is <conf-date>YYYY-MM-DD</conf-date>​. If you want to specify start and end dates for a conference, please use the format <conf-date>YYYY-MM-DD|YYYY-MM-DD</conf-date>​ (note the pipe delimiter between the dates). If you’d like for the conference to have only a month as the date, please include 00 in place of the day. Example: <conf-date>2012-05-00</conf-date>​ would display as May 2012​. ​​If there is no date—for example, for the conference series—include as empty element to satisfy JATS requirements.
​​<conf-name>​​Spelling, case, and punctuation must be consistent for all proceedings in a conference.
​​<conf-acronym>​​​This is a short identifier for the conference.
​​<conf-loc>​​​Spelling, case and punctuation must be consistent for all proceedings in a conference.

Conferences with multiple parents

A conference can have more than one parent. To indicate this, use a separate <conference> tag for each parent. In the example below, the “Annual Yearly Conference for 2012” belongs to both the “Yearly Conference” and the “Annual Conference” and would be assigned to both parents. On the site, the “Annual Yearly Conference” would show up in Conference Browse pages under both parents.
​​<conference content-type="conf-level-1">
​​    <conf-date />   
​​    <conf-name>Yearly Conference</conf-name>
​​    <conf-acronym>YC</conf-acronym>
​​    <conf-num>36</conf-num>
​​<conference content-type="conf-level-1">
​​    <conf-date />   
​​    <conf-name>Annual Conference</conf-name>
​​    <conf-acronym>AC</conf-acronym>
​​    <conf-num>30</conf-num>
​​<conference content-type="conf-level-2">
​​    <conf-date>2010-09-02|2010-09-03</conf-date>
​​    <conf-name>Annual Yearly Conference for 2010</conf-name>
​​    <conf-acronym>YC12</conf-acronym>
​​    <conf-num>1234567</conf-num>
​​    <conf-loc>Charlottesville, VA USA</conf-loc>
​​    <conf-sponsor>Society of Conference Sponsors</conf-sponsor>
​​    <conf-theme> Managing Change</conf-theme>
​​<conference content-type="volume">
​​    <conf-date/>
​​    <conf-name>Managing Change 2010</conf-name>
​​    <conf-num>123</conf-num>
​​<conference content-type="session">
​​    <conf-date/>
​​    <conf-name>Change in Organizations</conf-name>

Volume metadata

​​Required element​​Required attributes​​Notes
​​<conference>​​​@content-type="volume"​​​Information about the conference volume will go here. The <conference>​ element is the parent of the following elements.
​​<conf-date>​​​If no date is supplied for the volume, the volume date will be set to the date the volume is published to the site. If no date is provided, include an empty element to satisfy JATS requirements.
​​<conf-name>​​Put volume name here. The volume name must be consistent across all proceedings in the volume.
​​<conf-num>​​Volume number goes here. It must match the volume number given in the article metadata.

Session metadata

A conference session is also known as a conference section. These are different headers within the volume.

​​Required element​​Required attributes​​Notes
​​<conference>​​​@content-type="session"​​​The <conference>​ element is the parent of the following elements.
​​<conf-date>​​A session date cannot be assigned. Include as an empty element to satisfy JATS requirements.
​​<conf-name>​​​Put session name here.

Conference authors

Volume editors

To specify one or more volume editors, use a <contrib-group> with the attribute @content-type=”volume” as follows:
​​<contrib-group content-type="volume">
​​    <contrib contrib-type="editor">
​​        <name>
            <given-names>Adam E.</given-names>
​​    </contrib>

The <contrib-group> should be included in the <article-meta> section. Conference volume editors will be updated every time an article is loaded to that volume. Conference volume editors must therefore be included with all content.

Proceedings authors

Authors go into a contrib-group as follows:

​​<contrib-group content-type="article">
​​    <contrib contrib-type="author">
​​        <name>
            <given-names>Adam E.</given-names>
​​    </contrib>

1. Conference location, start date, and end date will be updated every time an article is loaded to the conference. The information must therefore be included with all content.
2. The volume date and volume name will be updated every time an article is loaded to that volume. The volume date and name must therefore be included with all content.